As usual I add the IP of the Forest machine I found there are several ports opened, it seems interesting to me. The domain services like kerberosldapSMB and WinRM port are open and accessable from the internet — which in reality a huge vulnaribility.
So, being a Windows system administrator for more than 10 years, I know where to start. I can use a tool called enum4linux to see if I can enumerate user and other domain information.
So as expected, Enum4linux command returned with a lot of information. Within the information, I found few users seb astienlucinda ,andy ,marksanti and service account called svc-alfresco. Also, I found the domain policy was so loosely configured — no p assword complexity enforced. This hints that the password can be easily cracked.
I as well found the server as well installed with a Microsoft Exchange instance. I tried the user names I gathered in previous step — but none worked, luckily the service account svc-alfresco revealed his TGT ticket-granting ticket. I used the rockyou. Now that I had a user shell, my next goal is to get admin shell. But this script need to upload to the Forest machine.
HackTheBox - Forest | Write-up
Since the user svc-alfresco has rights to create a folder within C, I made a temporary directory called the temp Now that I had this directory, I uploaded the Sharphound. Now I got the SharpHound. I download the file was successfully transferred and I loaded instantly into BloodHound by simply dragging and dropping it. Local domain. As soon as I authenticate, I can see the user svc-alfresco got permission.Hack The Box - Forest
And, we have the password hash from htb. Vote count: 1. No votes so far!If we used tee in the above command and saved the output in enum4linux-output we can get a list of the domain users:. Great now that we have a list of domain-users we can check and see if any of them are Kerberoastable. This is important because when the domain controller creates the TGS, it does not check if the requesting user is authorized to make the request.
Then we can try to crack their NT hash offline. Impacket dumps the hash of the svc-alfresco service account. Save the password hash in a text file by itself and we can crack it with John. This privilege essentially means that we have the ability to modify the permissions of users in the Domain; cool, can we just elevate ourselves?
We just have to provide ntlmrelayx our credentials now; the way this is done is a bit funky since we can't provide them with a command-line switch we have to hit it from our localhost via browser:. Since we can now change the ACL, ntlmrelay puts our user into the Domain Administrators group and secretsdump.
Now we can pass-the-hash to authenticate in as the Administrator account and read root. Forest HackTheBox Read other posts.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again.
If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again.Da dove escono? [archivio]
If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Machines writeups until March are protected with the corresponding root flag.
But since this date, HTB flags are dynamic and different for every user, so is not possible for us to maintain this kind of system. So from now we will accept only password protected challenges and retired machines that machine write-ups don't need password. It is totally forbidden to unprotect remove the password and distribute the pdf files of active machines, if we detect any misuse will be reported immediately to the HTB admins.
Anyway, all the authors of the writeups of active machines in this repository are not responsible for the misuse that can be given to the corresponding documents.
Please think that this is done to share techniques not for spoilers. In this way, you will be added to our top contributors list see below and you will also receive an invitation link to an exclusive Telegram group where several hints not spoilers are discussed for the HacktheBox machines.
Please consider protecting the text of your writeup e. Of course, if someone leaks a writeup of an active machine it is not the responsibility of the author. If we detect someone who does it, they will immediately report to the HTB Staff so they can take the appropriate measures.
Note: the minimum requirement to enter the "special" Telegram group is also to have a hacker level or higher no script kiddies. Hack the Box is a superb platform to learn pentesting, there are many challenges and machines of different levels and with each one you manage to pass you learn a new thing. But talking among ourselves we realized that many times there are several ways to get rooting a machine, get a flag That's why we created this repository, as a site to share different unofficial writeups to see different techniques and acquire even more knowledge.
That is our goal and our passion, to share to learn together. Some people have been distrustful because in this repository there are writeups of active machines, even knowing that absolutely each one of them is protected with the corresponding password root flag or challenge. But We did not want to give up this because we think the most interesting thing for a HTB player is to check other users' walkthroughs right after they get it, that is, not wait for weeks or months afterwards.
For this reason, we have asked the HTB admins and they have given us a pleasant surprise: in the future, they are going to add the ability for users to submit writeups directly to HTB which can automatically be unlocked after owning a machine.
And also, they merge in all of the writeups from this github page.RPC on port was open, so I attempted an unauthorized connection using rpcclient and followed up with enumdomusers:. This was a list of valid domain users on the box. User svc-alfresco stuck out to me because the abbreviation "svc" is commonly used to distinguish user accounts used to run services on Windows Servers.
At this point, I placed all the enumerated usernames into a list titled users. From here I knew a few things This was a Windows AD server, and I had a valid user. I figured bloodhound would be my best bet in order to map out the data in an easily readable format.
Using bloodhound-python, I output all domain data via. This confirmed my assumption on the DNS name as well as the users. Confirming the fact it running Exchange and contained default groups.
However, no users at the time were listed under the net group for "Exchange Windows Permissions". But, I knew this had to be my escalation path This presented a valid path which allowed the assignment of svc-fresco to the Exchange Windows Permissions group. I decided to try adding svc-alfresco to the group via my WinRM shell:. Now with the proper permissions assigned and a possible route to root, I decided to look into impacket scripts.
There was a listener script for a ton of Windows protocols so I kicked it off:. That was it! The script managed to dump all account hashed. The last step was to figure out how to pass the hash for authentication as admin:.La varie forme dellesperienza religiosa
I went back to my WinRM session and ran a few more commands to check for exchange groups: This confirmed my assumption on the DNS name as well as the users. I opened up bloodhound and mapped my route for svc-alfresco: This presented a valid path which allowed the assignment of svc-fresco to the Exchange Windows Permissions group.
I decided to try adding svc-alfresco to the group via my WinRM shell: Now with the proper permissions assigned and a possible route to root, I decided to look into impacket scripts.
HackTheBox - Forest
There was a listener script for a ton of Windows protocols so I kicked it off: I then went to the login page and authenticated as svc-alfresco: At this point a ton of output occurred on my listener: I then opened up another terminal and ran secretsdump. The last step was to figure out how to pass the hash for authentication as admin: And there is was, forest r00t.
Share this.Welcome back everyone. Today we will be doing the Hack the Box machine Forest. The box is listed as an easy Windows box. Let's jump in! Let's see what might be shared on SMB. Repeating the scan again with -p- gives us some additional ports as well. Most notabled A quick SMBMap gives us access denied. This gives us access, we can enumerate users this way using enumdomusers within our connection:.
We can take those and paste them into a file called users. Now we want to remove all the junk and essentially keep the usernames. A quick one liner:.
Now that we have a list of users. Lucky for us impacket gives us the tools to try all of these out. At the time of writting this, the current version of Impacket on Kali is 9. You'll need to add a username one at a time. You can also copy the updated script from here and use that. First we'll use GetNPUsers. A breakdown of the above command. Lastly, -dc-ip is our target Domain Controller, in this case, our target.
Now that we have a username and hash, we can crack it in John. Shortly we have a result: s3rvice. Now that we have a set of credentials, we can look to use those.Getting user was quite straight forward but escalating privileges was a little more compricated.
First, I do the usual nmap scan I start with on all boxes: nmap -A -T5 We got a list of users! One of them pops out from all the others: svc-alfresco.
There is this cool cheatsheet to learn how to use the widly recommended Impacket. Time to crack it! Copy the hash to a text file called hash. It took only 3 seconds, but not surprising with how bad the password was: s3rvice. Now we can get our shell with my favourite evil-winrm and get the user flag:.
In Active Directory, you can use BloodHound to find relationships between users, groups and computers which can be used to escalate your privileges. It is very useful for the red team but also for the blue team in order to identify and mitigate the vulnerabilities and limit the paths to high value targets within your AD architecture.
After downloading the lastest release of BloodHound, we can use our evil-winrm shell to upload it to the serve, run it there, and download back the results which will be in a zip format.
Just dragged and dropped the zip file into the BloodHound gui and it will upload it to the database automatically. WriteDacl basically gives this group the ability to create any relationship they want. Bad news for the blue team, great team for us!
Even better is that by clicking the WriteDacl relationship in BloodHound, it gives us a step-by-step guide on how to exploit it:. And a Domain Controller, we can now dump all the password hashes, how convenient:. Here is the Administrator password hash. One last Impacket script and we have a shell as Administrator:. I recommend it to anyone interested in Windows pen-testing. DIT secrets htb. All rights reserved.This post provides a walkthrough of the Forest system on Hack The Box. This walktrough, in entirety, is a spoiler.
I create these walkthroughs as documentation for myself while working through a system; excuse any brevity or lack of formality. To kick things off, we start with some service discovery to figure out what is actually running on this box.
I noticed the one of the users was called svc-alfresco and it was confirmed, in the above snippet, to be a service account.Kamus english malay tamil
This got me thinking that this challenge was likely focused around kerberos related attacks. Using impacket 's GetNPUserd. If this bit is set, we can retrieve a TGT for that user object without having to execute kerberos pre-authentication. As seen above, we were able to recover the TGT and put the hash in a format that hashcat can understand.
I had a hunch that given this is a DC, the idea was to target active directory misconfigurations for privilege escalation. In order to get better insight, I used SharpHound to enumerate AD and give me a better visiblity on privilege escalation paths.
This was done via a windows VM. As we can see from the output above, we have GenericAll permissions on the Exchange Windows Permisisons group, which in turn has WriteDacl permissions on the domain object. If we add the svc-aflresco user to the Exchange Windows Permissions group, we gain the ability to modify the domain object ACL. Since we are already in our Windows attack VM, we might as well continue from the same box.
Earlier we discovered that svc-alfresco was able to leverage WinRM to gain a shell on the box. From here, we can go ahead and manipulate the domain object to give ourselves GenericAll privileges.
Interestingly enough, the group changes would persist for only roughly a minute. I think there was likely some code on the DC to revert changes to make this box a bit harder.
The above was pasted in to the PowerShell session in order to speed things up. After modifying the permissions on the domain object we can simply leverage mimikatz lsadump::dcsync funcitonality to retrieve the hash.
I attempted to use a number of online password cracking oslutions to crack the hash but was unsuccessful. Instead, I opted to use the -hash option within evil-winrm to pass-the-hash and establish a shell as Administrator. I then retrieved the root flag. Service Enumeration To kick things off, we start with some service discovery to figure out what is actually running on this box.
Compressing data to. You can upload this file directly to the UI. Finished compressing files! WindowsIdentity] :: GetCurrent [ User [ SID [ ActiveDirectoryRights] " GenericAll " [ AccessControlType] " Allow " [ ActiveDirectorySecurityInheritance] " None " [ The article was updated on Read Markdown.
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